Paper Title
Expression of Defense Genes in Faba Bean Treated with Biotic and Abiotic Resistance Inducers

Significant increases in PR1 and PR2 gene expression levels were detected in both the susceptible and resistant cvs., pretreated with the bioagents T. stipitatus or V. lecanii, in both of the tested time periods, particularly after the first day. Increases in PR2 levels in susceptible cv. were higher in V. lecanii treatment, after the second day of inoculation. However, pretreatment with T. stipitatus resulted in higher increases in PR2 in the resistant cv.Pretreatment of both susceptible and resistant faba bean cultivars with salicylic (SA) or oxalic acids (OXA) resulted in significant increase in PR1 and PR2 gene expression levels, directly after the first day of inoculation with B. fabae. Increases in PR1 Values were significantly higher in OXA than SA treatment, whereas SA was more effective in PR2 treatments. Moreover, In PR2 analysis, levels were higher after 24 than 48 hr treatment. In general, administration of both tested biological and chemical inducers resulted in higher up-regulation of PR1 and PR2 gene expression in the resistant Sakha 2 cv. than in the susceptible Giza 40 cv. Keywords- Gene expression, PR1, PR2 (β-1,3-glucanase), B. fabae, faba bean (Viciafaba L.), Talaromycesstipitatus, Verticilliumlecanii, salicylic acid, oxalic acid.