Paper Title
The Relevance of Reef Restoration in The Continually Changing Marine Environment of Singapore

Singapore’s marine environment has changed significantlyover the past 5 decades through coastal modification and intense human activities. More than 60% of its coral reefs have been lost to land reclamation and the remaining reefs remain exposed to increased sedimentation. Reef restoration to address habitat loss and degradation is considered viable under the changing environment conditions based on the persisting annual coral mass spawning events, active recruitment, high species diversity, and recovery from mass bleaching impacts. These ecological attributes indicate that reef ecosystem integrity is still functioning and restoration measures are relevant. An analysis of past and ongoing restoration initiatives indicate their effectiveness in improving degraded reefs as well as establish new reef communities on modified coasts. Keywords: Coral Reefs, Restoration, Degradation, Changing Environment