Paper Title
Empirical and Perception-Based Benefits of Buffer Zone Program in Household Income and Community Contribution in Biodiversity Conservation, Syaubari Community, Langtang National Park, Nepal

Nepal government has implemented Buffer Zone Management Regulation (1996) which provisions a buffer zone and revenue sharing of 30-50 % with local communities. The objective of regulation is to help shift the anthropogenic pressure to buffer zone and compensate communities for living with wild animals. 145 households were interviewed in Syaubari buffer zone community, Nepal. The study reveals that 92.4% households rely on forest. The average and total household income were calculated US$ 1,394 and US$ 202,209 respectively. The share of Buffer Zone program on household income was only 4%. However, it greatly reduced the resources collection time. It saved 2,351 days or opportunity cost US$ 11,190 yearly. Nearly 70% respondents highly agreed that current access to fire wood is improved followed by 29% just agree and 1% had no idea. The community contributed 715 labour days in 2012-2014. The regression analysis (df=140, R2 =0.06%, p>0.05) reveals that there were no significant relationship between in-kind contribution with wage income, education level, remittance and landholding. The study recommends that additional focus should be given to livelihoods program and to increase in-kind local contribution in silviculture practice. Keywords - Buffer Zone, Household Income, In-kind contribution, Forest Resources