Paper Title
Estimating Time Divergence of Bracovirus (Polydnaviridae) that Drive the Speciation of Cotesia Sp. (Braconidae: Microgastrinae)

The specialization of Cotesia species is known to be driven by its endosymbiont Bracovirus. However, the time estimation for this symbiosis happen is still unknown. Studies show that the symbiosis between Bracovirus and its Braconids wasps occured ≈73.7±10MYA, however the time for symbiosis between Cotesia sp. and its bracovirus is unknown. This beneficial parasitoid is very important in biological control program for controlling larva pest that infesting crops. Its endosymbiont helps in the successfulness process of parasitization. In this study, 28S and CrV1 regions were used to study the time estimation of Bracovirus in driving the speciation of Cotesia. In this study, we believed the time divergence for Cotesia speciation occurred is ≈84.05±10MYA and the driving force by bracovirus happens at ≈85.02±10MYA. Keywords— Molecular clock, speciation, Cotesia, Bracovirus, 28S, CrV1.