Paper Title
Efficacy of Solanum Nigrum Extracts With Antibiotics Against Beta-Lactam Resistant Escherichia Coli

This study to find out the efficacy of Solanum nigrum extracted with different solvents based on their polarity indexes then combined with antibiotics against Beta-lactam Resistant Escherichia coli. The phytochemical qualitative analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins. On the evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility; the bacterial strain was standardized using the colony suspension method. The suspensions matched with 0.5 McFarland standards resulting concentration of 1.5 × 106 CFU/mL. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried on both disc and well diffusion methods on Mueller Hinton agar under the steps on the Kirby-Bauer test. 50 μL of the bacterial sample were inoculated into Mueller Hinton agar plates. Methanol Solanum nigrum extract revealed a higher antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The diameter zone of inhibition on the combination of methanol plant extract with Ciprofloxacin (5mcg) was 2 ± 0.4 mm, methanol S. nigrum with Tetracycline (30 mcg) increased by 2 ± 0.2 mm. Water plant extract with Ciprofloxacin (5mcg) to 1 ± 0.3 mm and S. nigrum with Tetracycline (30 mcg) increased by 1 ± 0.7 mm. Isopropanol plant extract only showed an increase in the diameter zone of inhibition with Ciprofloxacin (5mcg) of 1 ± 0.4 mm. Hexane solvent extract did not show an increase in its diameter zone of inhibition. This study is of great significance in advancing the efficacy of antibiotics to broader-spectrum against pathogenic multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Keywords - Beta-lactam Resistant Escherichia coli, Phytochemicals, Antibiotics, Solanum nigrum