Paper Title
Rivers, Ruptures and Water: Socio-Political Sites of Water Conflict

This situation of a river basin constituting more than one political entity gives rise to issues and aspects that needs to be addressed to meet the multiple objectives of both for the development &utilization of its water resources and to mitigate water induced problems, viz, floods and inundation. The agreements between the two countries/state provide for the benefits to, and responsibilities of, the two sides during the construction, as well as in the operation & maintenance of the projects, till they are framed. Most of theriver projects of India are multi-purpose projects, with the benefits of irrigation, flood control and hydro-power generation. There are instances when construction of a dam by one side (country / state) may cause submergence of land in another riparian state, In such a case, the affected state on the issue of submergence of the land in their territory is required, as this may involvethe issues of submergence of forest land, rehabilitation & resettlement of the project affected persons (PAPS) and its resolution is most of the time difficult. There are instances, when in case of a common project under operation, a lower riparian entity is neglected and not provided benefits which is duly entitled. Due to violations of the agreement / understanding / stipulations made in the project,by powerful upper riparian,excess water is extracted byhaving a stronghold of the operations. Not only this, water location are often feminine spaces and women have been imaged as the domestic collectors of water, as domestic consumers, but they have no say in the public /productive role of water uses and are not allowed to participate in its decision makingand governance even as commodification and 'privatisation' of water become the watch words. Throughout South Asia (and elsewhere), gender is central to social and political power dynamics that shape the use of resources Keywords: Upper riparian, mitigate, inundation,submergence, commodification,