Paper Title
A Study on Hypertension and Diabetes in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension are closely connected with an intermingled cause and effect relationship. When kidney function decrease the blood pressure rises, and continuing elevations in blood pressure induce progression of CKD. Diabetes and hypertension both are major cause of chronic kidney disease. Aim: The present study was planned to find out frequency of (i) Hypertension (HTN) as a cause Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). (ii) Association between hypertension and diabetic in CKD patients as compared to healthy subjects. Method: Fifty diagnosed cases of CKD (stage 4 & 5), age up to 60 years were enrolled for the study. Fifty age and sex matched healthy individuals constituted the control group. Results obtained were compared between CKD patients and control group statistically by applying students‟ t-test. Result: In the study, the main co-morbidity associated with CKD was hypertension, followed by Diabetes mellitus. Etiology wise out of fifty patients, 29 (58%) patients had hypertension. Diabetes mellitus cases are 4(8%) associated with CKD followed by both of hypertension and DM (28%) and others (06%). Mean systolic (137.001± 9.944 P< 0.0001) and diastolic blood pressure (100.401± 11.773 P< 0.0001) were significantly higher in CKD patients as compared to healthy subjects. Mean eGFR, estimated by Cockeroft and Gault formula was significantly lower (14.306± 4.188 P< 0.0001) in CKD group. Mean fasting blood glucose values (104.460±40.091) were significantly higher in CKD groups. Conclusion: The study suggests that hypertension may be the predictor sign of kidney dysfunction. In CKD patients appropriate HTN management decrease both cardiovascular and kidney outcomes. For control of HTN in diabetes kidney disease a collaborative network requires among patients, primary care providers, endocrinologists, and nephrologists. Keywords - Hypertension, CKD, Diabetes, eGFR, End Stage Renal Disease.