Paper Title
Study on the Survival and Adaptation of Canna Indica L. To Different Light Environments and Herbivore Attacks

Canna indica (African arrowroot or Indian shot), a multi-use tropical herb with worldwide distribution, has great potential to be an intercropping plant, but little is known about its growth light environment. Here, we investigated the effect of light on the survival of C. indica and its susceptibility to insect attacks. This experiment was set on an open field with two light treatments: 100% natural full sunlight and 25% full sunlight (shade-grown). Insects that attacked the plant were from the natural populations. We found that all C. indica plants survived both treatments. Full-sunlight-grown C. indica produced thicker leaves, heavier fresh rhizomes and yielded an earlier flowering time, whereas shade-grown C. indica produced longer shoots, higher leaf area, and better branching frequency. A higher incidence of insect attacks was observed on the leaves of full-sunlight-grown plants, with about 17% of the total leaves being consumed, compared to ~1% of the leaves of shade-grown plants. No insect attack was found on the roots. The prime herbivore attack on C. indica was by Valanga sp. This study found that C. indica showed a remarkable ability to adapt to different light environments and is suitable as an intercropping plant under the shade of tree canopies. Keywords - Canna Indica, Full Sun-Grown, Shadegrown, Herbivore Attack, Intercropping Species