Sea Sponge Geodia sp and Sargassum Spp. As Melanogenesis Inhibitor on Guinea Pig Skin Induced by Ultraviolet B Light
Background: Sea sponges Geodia sp. and Sargassum ssp. leaf contains active compounds that have been widely studied, including its secondary metabolites to inhibit melanogenesis processes. Ultra Violet B is present in sunlight, causing an increase in the formation of melanin pigments through the process of melanogenesis. This study examined the content of the secondary metabolites of 70% methanol extract Sea sponges Geodia sp. and its use as a melanogenesis inhibitor. Research Method: This study used two methods of research, first descriptive method to determine secondary metabolites of Sea sponges Geodia sp. and Sargassum ssp. through reagent testing, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) test and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) test. Second, analytical methods through quasi-experimental research using the posttest only with control group design, in 16 guinea pigs were divided into six groups. Each guinea pig is exposed to UV B light three times per week for three weeks. Application of Sea sponges Geodia sp. and Sargassum ssp. extracts cream for 1 week once a day. The inhibition effect of melanogenesis was observed through histochemical observation of Fontana Mason stainning to calculate the average percentage of melanin. Results: Sea sponges Geodia sp. and Sargassum ssp. leafs have active inggredients terpenoids. The GC-MS test of the purified extract of Sea sponges Geodia sp. obtained pyrido pyrimidine as a tyrosinase inhibitor. The GC-MS test of Sargassum ssp. leafs do not contain tyrosinase inhibitor. The preclinical testing showed the greatest inhibitory effect on melanogenesis is in 1 gram crude extract of Sea sponges Geodia sp. and 0,5 gram crude extract of Sargassum ssp. wide leafs. Conclusion: Secondary metabolites of Sea sponges Geodia sp. and Sargassum ssp. are useful for inhibiting melanogenesis. Keywords - Sea Sponges Geodia Sp., Secondary Metabolite, Melanogenesis.