Assessment The Response of Buckwheat for Sowing Rate and Date in The Nineveh Province of Iraq
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) family (Polygonaceae). is a summery annual plant, broad leaf with
superficial surface roots, a weak tap root and erect, reddish stems. The plant produces multiple branches along the stems,
heart-shaped leaves, and clusters of small white flowers at the end of the branches. The flowers have pink anthers.
Conducted the field experiment in farm of Technical Institute / Northern Technical University/ (NTU) in growing season
2013 /2014 in Nineveh Governorate for Iraq for Tartary variety of buckwheat plant. ,The results of variance analyses in
Table (1) shows the Mean squares through the table of variance analysis that the plant density was significantly differs in
all traits ; plant height ,number of tillers , seeds number / plant , weight of seeds /plant and grain yield at level 0.01, but
sowing date significantly differs in Number of seeds /plant and weigh of seeds /plant at level 0.01 while the plant height
,number of tillers /plant and grain yield significantly differs at level 0.05 . The interaction among two factors shows the
number of seeds /plant (1678.13**) significantly differs at level 0.01,either plant height(28.37*) ,number of
tillers/plant(140.02 *) , weight of seeds / plant(208.761*) significantly differs at level 0.05.Results in Table(2) shows that the
second plant density 30 kg/dunum was better due to their high value in all traits and its significantly superiority in number
of seeds /plant(7.79) and weight of seeds /plant(7.84 gm) but not differs than first plant density 20 kg/dunum in plant height
,number of tillers and grain yield at level 0.05.Table (3) indicates to effect of ecological factor which represented by
sowing dates, found that third sowing date(01/04) first April was significantly superiority in all traits; plant height(55.16
cm) ,number of tillers /plant (65.30),number of grain / plant (15.42 ), weight of seeds /plant (6.1 gm) and grain yield (3.9167
ton / ha) ,Table (4) indicates to the interaction effect among two factors; sowing date and rate shows the second sowing
rate a2;(30 kg / d) with third date b3; (01/o4)was significantly superiority in all traits; plant height (57.03 cm) ,number of
tillers /plant (73.86), number of seeds /plant(10.30 ), weight of seeds /plant (24.36 gm) and grain yield (4.80 ton / ha) .
Conclusion from this study that second rate ( 30 kg/d) with third sowing date (1/04) was the better factors to Buckwheat
planting in the north of Iraq due to its higher values in all vegetative and yield properties.
Notice: Dunum = 50x50 m = ¼ hectare
Keywords- Buckwheat, Sowing date ,Sowing rate, Nineveh, Iraq