Degradation of Marine Petroleum Compounds by Bacteria and Algae (Review Article)
Water pollution caused by crude oil or oil compounds is one of the environmental problems in the world. The aim
of this article is introduction of some bacteria and algae that can degrade oil compounds in marine ecosystems. Bioremediation
is a simple and economical method to treat contaminated water from these pollutants. This method utilizes the natural ability of
microorganisms to degrade the toxic compound into simpler and non-toxic form. Some algae and bacteria can use petroleum as
carbon source and hence, break them down to harmless end products. Successful bioremediation depends on having the right
bacteria in the right place with the right environmental factors for degradation. Right bacteria are bacteria which have the
physiological and metabolic capabilities to degrade the pollutants. Typical bacterial groups already known for their capacity to
degrade hydrocarbons include Pseudomonas, Marinobacter, Alcanivorax, Microbulbifer, Sphingomonas, Micrococcus,
Cellulomonas, Dietzia, and Gordonia groups. There are still some persistent organic pollutants that are difficult to break down
by the microorganisms. The genetic engineering can solve this problem and improve the absorption and bioremediation of
many organic pollutants and it is necessary to study about the best condition of environment such as pH, nutrients, temperature
and etc. to increase the biodegradation and reduce the time of bioaccumulation.
Index Terms - Algae, Bacteria, Environment, Petroleum.