Paper Title
Quantification of DNA Damage Due to UV Irradiation and Formalin

Significant amount of literature is available investigating the mechanism of ‘Carcinogenesis’, which is generally due to accumulation of mutagens; but not much is known about the rate of the transformation or the variables involved. In order to address the types of damage caused by different aspects of a particular mutagen, this study is a first step using quantitative approach to investigate the DNA damage caused by UV radiation with respect to the intensity of the UV radiation (time of the day), percentage of the C-C runs (hotspots for UV induced damage) in the region being studied, period of exposure and amount of DNA damage repaired by different repair mechanism in E.coli. Samples collected after exposure to sunlight at different time of the day, for different time period and multiple exposures were cultured in nutrient broth and the absorbance of the broth, which is proportional to the concentration of the growth, was measured. The difference in the absorbance indicated that afternoon exposure to sunlight is relatively more hazardous as compared to morning and evening sunlight while continuous repeated exposure can cause exponential damage and different repair mechanism initiates usually after the first exposure for a short period. Real-time-PCR results confirmed the results from the Absorbance data. A similar experiment was conducted with formalin as the mutagen, where the effect of different concentrations and number of exposures were investigated. This study pioneers the quantification of DNA damage as a function of physical and chemical environmental factors.Furthermore, it provides insight on the quantitative correlation of the mutagenic factors (UV radiation/Formalin) and DNA damage, thus laying the foundation to design an algorithm /model considering the same, which will predict the DNA damage based on the given environmental parameters. Index Terms—DNA damage, Formalin and UV radiation, Mutagen, Quantitative approach